SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Great British Scientific Breakthroughs
- It took five different scientists working in Cambridge to discover the structure of DNA as we know it today: Rosalind Franklin, Linus Pauling, Maurice Wilkins, Francis Crick and James Watson.
- The theory of plate tectonics and continental drift being responsible for the formation of our planet as it is now, was universally accepted at a meeting at the Royal Society in London in 1965.
- Louise Brown became the first baby born from IVF (in vitro fertilization) back in July 1978 in Oldham, UK. Louise had been conceived in a petri dish, following Robert G. Edwards developing the treatment.
- In 1985 the British Antarctic Survey discovered the Antarctic ozone hole, which was much bigger than expected. This has now prompted concern about the ozone layer and the effects of pollution on the environment.
- The first cloned mammal was Dolly the sheep, born in July 1996 near Edinburgh. Dolly was cloned from an adult somatic cell, using nuclear transfer, acting as proof that the genetic material from one cell is enough to create a whole being.
Famous Scientists and Inventors
- Albert Einstein - changed the world of science with his work on theoretical physics. His theories, equations and ideas made him a stuff of legends
- Galileo Galilei – developed telescopes and used them to make revolutionary observations about our solar system. He discovered new planets such as the moons that orbit Jupiter
- Isaac Newton – developed the theory of universal gravitation and the three laws of motion
- Charles Darwin – introduced the idea of natural selection and evolution using observational data recorded on his long sea voyages
- Louis Pasteur – a French chemist and microbiologist who created an understanding of microorganisms and the causes and prevention of diseases, famously developing pasteurised (germ-free) milk, and the first ever rabies vaccine
- Edwin Hubble – a major contributor in the field of astrophysics. He was honoured by NASA who named the Hubble Space Telescope after him
- Aristotle – his famous work discusses philosophy, politics, logic and music
- Stephen Hawking – British theoretical physicist famous for his research work on black holes
- Ernest Rutherford - developed a new model of the atom and mentored a number of other scientists
Ten Great Quotes by Famous Scientists
- “Imagination is more important than knowledge” – Einstein
- “In rivers, the water that you touch is the last of what has passed and the first of that which comes; so with present time” – Leonardo da Vinci
- “A person starts to live when he can live outside himself” – Einstein
- “You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him discover it in himself” – Galileo
- “The Sun, with all the planets revolving around it, and depending on it, can still ripen a bunch of grapes as though it had nothing else in the Universe to do “ – Galileo
- “An investment in knowledge pays the best interest” – Benjamin Franklin
- “An American monkey, after getting drunk on brandy, would never touch it again, and thus is much wiser than most men” – Charles Darwin
- “A true friend is one soul in two bodies” – Aristotle
- “He who is fixed to a star does not change his mind” – Leonardo da Vinci
- “If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants” – Isaac Newton